Samarkand State Medical University was established in 1930, is a public University by the decision of the Uzbekistan government, and has since become one of the leading medical higher education institutions in Central Asia. Prior to its establishment, the region lacked an independent medical higher education institution.
After Uzbekistan gained independence, the university underwent significant development. In 1997, the "National Programme of Training" was adopted, followed by a State Programme of Health Care Reform in 1998, which led to the creation of the Faculty of Higher Nursing in 1999.
The university continued to expand, with the opening of the Faculty of Medical Pedagogy in 2001, and the Faculties of Stomatology, Medical Preventive Medicine, Medical Biology, and Pharmacy in 2005. Additionally, a new course called "Traditional Medicine" was introduced for students in the following years. As of April 2022, the institution has been renamed Samarkand State Medical University.